Wednesday, March 13, 2024

VPP Scoring Options for PHRF and ORR/ORRez scoring.

 Several clubs have expressed and interest in VPP scoring for their PHRF and ORR/ORRez fleets.  VPP ratings offer different ratings based on wind speed and direction.  As you may know, multi handicap PHRF scoring was limited to RLC, Bouy and OffWind ratings.  

With expanded VPP PHRF Ratings, there will be 5 ratings – Vlight, Light, Light/Medium, Medium, and Heavy.  In setting up the event, the organizer can specify which rating category they would like to use (RL, 50/50 WL, 60/40 WL, Mostly WW, Mostly LW or Mostly Reach). 


We’ve also expanded the ORR/ORRez multiple ratings to accommodate 5 ratings.  However to accommodate the distance courses, the organizer can specify which ratings they would like to collect from the entrant with free text fields.  So they can specify they want WL50/50 for Light, LT/Medium, and Medium and WL/60/40 for Light and LT/Medium, or any combination. 


In either case, during the event the PRO will need to note the course wind speed and the scorer will select the appropriate ratings to apply to that race: 

Tuesday, December 26, 2023

Integrating YBTracking with a Regatta Network event


Several clubs have asked about integrating YB Tracking with Regatta Network for their distance races.  Over the past year, we have worked with several YB Tracking events to develop user friendly integration with Regatta Network.  This integration relieves the scoring team on overnight distance races from the tedium of watching an often vacant finish line waiting for a boat to finish. 

How it Works

Basically, YB Tracking adds the Regatta Network server to the data stream that they use for their mapping program.  Our server “listens” to the YB data stream for each of their trackers to cross a specified “finish fence” and records that finish time into Regatta Network scoring.  If you need to edit a finisher to add a motoring or other penalty, you can "pause" the finishes while you complete your edits, and then restart and score the boats that finished during this process.  

The first step is to let us know that you would like to integrate YB Tracking for your event.  We will co-ordinate with YB Tracking to have them add RN to their data stream.   

You will also need to add YB Tracking serial numbers to entrants.  We’ve added a field to the Edit Event Entries console for the YB Tracker SN, when you receive your trackers from YB, you can assign the tracker serial number to each entrant. 

To assist in this process, we’ve also added YB Tracker SN as an option to the Show/hide columns tool so you can quickly determine if a competitor is missing a tracker number. 

And send you a complete tutorial on the integration process and add the YB tracking dashboard to your event.  


Monday, August 8, 2022

New Tools for Race Committee Communication

Based on the recommendation of the PRO at a recent event, we've have added a new tool to include the members of the race committee in communications sent to entrants.  By adding a comma separated list of the email addresses for the race committee members to the first tab of the Edit Event Information console, they will be added to your event.  Email adresses for event level users will need to be added to the email adresses field.  

This will allow you to email all or part of them directly through the Regatta Network email console, or copy them on mail sent to the participants. 

As normal, CC addresses will receive a message if the entrant uses "Reply All", but BCC’s will not be copied.  

Thursday, November 12, 2020

New Options for Portsmouth Scoring

As you may know, since 1973 US SAILING has endorsed the North American Portsmouth Yardstick as an empirical handicapping system to provide equitable scoring of different boats sailing the same course.  Based on the Dixie Portsmouth Yardstick this system used two or three digit handicaps, with the option to use an adjusted handicap based on the wind speed or “Beaufort Number.”

In 2020, US SAILING has decided to move away from the traditional US SAILING Portsmouth Yardstick for Portsmouth scoring (Dixie Portsmouth Numbers) to the Royal Yachting Association’s Portsmouth Yardstick.  Although the scoring formulas are similar for both systems, there are some significant differences:  

  • The US SAILING PY relied on modification and updates through its volunteer Portsmouth Committee, the RYA PY relies on PYOnline which is an online portal for clubs to submit and manage data for their sailors. 
  • US SAILING PY uses two or three digit handicap factor, the RYA PY uses a three or four digit handicap factor, as such the scoring formulas are VERY different.  In general, most US SAILING PY DPN ratings can be converted to RYA PY ratings by multiplying the DPN by a factor of 11.58.  In other words, you can’t mix the RYA and US SAILING ratings, pick either one or the other. 
  • The US SAILING PY used various BN factors to adjust the handicap factor based on wind speed, the RYA PY uses a single handicap factor regardless of wind speed. 
  • The US SAILING PY table contains 1,696 boat models, the RYA PY table contains 97 boat models.

Without going into the “why’s” (see  for details) we will just deal with the “hows.” 

Regatta Network has converted the existing US SAILING PY table to include the RYA rating for all 1,696 boats.  As such, in Regatta Network, you ‘ll now have the option to use:  

  • The existing US SAILING PY DPN based on the current (2017 US SAILING Portsmouth Table) with BN factors.  (HOW TO:  On the scoring options tab of the Edit Event Information console, only list the classes to be scored with Portsmouth.  Entrants will choose their rating from the lookup with BN factors). 

  • The US SAILING PY DPN based on entrant entered rating.  Note:  all entrants need to enter the US SAILING DPN, not the RYA rating.  (HOW TO:   On the scoring options tab of the Edit Event Information console, tick the box to “Do Not Use the Portsmouth Database).  Entrants will enter the rating of their choice).   As the organizer you will need to verify that all entrants enter the appropriate DPN  rating. 

  •  RYA PY scoring using rating the calculated rating based on the 2017 US SAILING PY table.  (HOW TO:  On the scoring options tab of the Edit Event Information console, tick the box use the RYA Rating.   to be scored with Portsmouth.  Entrants will choose their rating from the lookup with BN factors).

  • The RYA PY scoring using an entrant entered rating.  (HOW TO:  On the scoring options tab of the Edit Event Information console, tick both the USE RYA Rating box and the Box to Not use the Portsmouth Database.  Entrants will enter the rating of their choice),  Again, as the organizer you will need to verify that all entrants enter the appropriate RYA rating. 


For information on joining PYonline and submitting your club's results, please see: we will be posting details on downloading your results from Regatta Network to submit on PYonline shortly. 

Thursday, October 1, 2020

Regatta Network Lite

 Recent events have brought significant changes to business’ everywhere, and Regatta Network is no exception.  Our costs from our hosting, security, email and SMS providers have increased to the point that we have to reconsider features offered to no-charge events. 

As you may know, in the past we’ve allowed clubs to use Regatta Network for their club level “free events,” as a learning tool to familiarize themselves with Regatta Network.  However, several clubs have been abusing this offer and running every event as a “free” regatta and collecting registration fees or "donations" directly. 

As such, effective immediately, no-charge events will automatically be shifted to Regatta Network “Lite.”

Regatta Network “Lite” will provide normal registration processing, but will not include the following: 

  • Listing on the Regatta Network calendar
  • Access to Email or SMS messaging consoles
  •  Event Websites
  •  Online Scoring
  • Online Notice Board

Registration data will be captured and can be exported to the scoring program of your choice.  The results generated can be uploaded to the results archive on Regatta Network. 

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Working with Waitlists in the Age of Covid 19

For many  events, capacity constraints and wait lists are a fact of life. Many facilities can only accommodate a set number of boats. Wait lists in the Regatta Network system are based on the number of paid entrants received for a specific fee. As a reminder, the Waitlist Limit is established when setting up the registration fee, and will allow entry into your event until the limit is reached.

Once that limit has been reached, and entrants are being actively wait listed, we recommend you revise the Waitlist Limit downward, say from 50 to 35 or 40. This will let you delete entrants that have to drop out and override the wait list status for entrants currently wait listed. Otherwise when you delete a paid entrant, the waitlist will open up for the public, and let anyone jump in line in front of the wait listed entrants.

Step-by-Step: To override the waitlist status for an entrant --
> Click "Edit Event Entries"
> Click on the entrants name
> At the bottom of the next page, click the check box to "Override waitlist for this registrant "
> Click button to Modify this entrant.
> Notify the Entrant either through the email console, or directly to edit their registration form.

With the fluid nature of state and local "Stay At Home" orders due to Covid-19, you may wish to capture registrations, but not accept payments until you are sure the event will be able to happen.  In this case set the waitlist limit to "-1"  and the system will accept the registrations but not allow payment.

With "Multi-Registration" fees, the fee will disappear when the waitlist limit has been reached, to let the entrant pay for the classes or races that are available.  So you may want to include a custom question to capture second choice for their registration.

Waitlists do not function with Meal or Merchandise fees, only with registration and multi-registration fees.   As always if you have any questions regarding using waitlists, feel free to contact us.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Average Points for Series or a Regatta

Awarding average points for a race as the result of redress or for their service on Race Committee is now as easy as adding a scoring comment. During scoring you can add the average points for the races up until the current race, or provide the average points for the entire series. 

If you select AVG-ALL during a series, the average points will adjust as you score the subsequent races.  

Multiple Ratings for Handicap Classes

You can now use multiple handicaps for scoring PHRF, ORR, ORRez or ORC by choosing "Multiple Handicaps" during event set up.  For PHRF, the entrant will be presented three fields to enter the Random Leg Course Rating, the Offwind Course Rating and the Buoy Course Rating when they select a PHRF class.

If they select an ORC class, they will be presented with three fields for the High, Medium and Low handicaps for TOT or TOD depending on the options selected on the Scoring Options tab of Edit Event Information:
Since ORR and ORRez have multiple handicap options, you will be able to specify on the Scoring Options tab of the Edit Event Information console which handicaps you intend to use for your event.
Also, note that you can toggle the multiple handicaps for each scoring method between multiple or single handicap options, so you can use multiple on as many or as few classes as you wish.  When the entrant selects an ORR/ORRez class, they are presented with the following options: 

Then during scoring, you will be able to select the appropriate rating range for each fleet on every race.  

Thursday, May 9, 2019

Using Multi-Registration Fees

There are two types of basic registration fees within Regatta Network, a regular registration fee creates the fee drop down, you are probably used to: 
As the entrants register, they are displayed as a single group on the Edit Event Entries console, without delineation of the fee selected: 
With multi-registration fees, the entrant is presented a series of check-box options during the registration process.  They can select one, two or any multiple of fees during registration: 
And the entrants are delineated by the fees they have selected on the Edit Event Entries console.  So one registration may result in multiple listings for the entrant based on each fee they have selected: 
Multi-Registration fees are useful for series races, or sailing classes and camps.  This allows the entrant to select the specific events they with to attend on a single registration.  It also allows the event admin to easily move an entrant from one "event" to another provided they are priced the same: 
 There are specific caveats regarding multi-registration fees: 
  • Because of the changes in the Edit Event Entries presentation, multi-registration fees can not be combined with regular registration fees.  
  • Once an event has begun accepting registrations with one type of fee, either multi-registration or regular registration fee, it can not be changed over to the other type. 
Provided you keep these in mind, the multi-registration fee can make signing up for your events easier for the entrant and easier for you to manage. 

Wednesday, April 3, 2019

New “Require Immediate Payment” Functionality

We’ve added new functionality to the Require Immediate payment feature on Regatta Network.  On the Payment Options tab of Edit Event Information, if you select “Require Immediate Payment,” the entrant will be able to register as before: 
·         During registration, the entrant is be told that their registration is not complete without payment. 
·         They receive an email confirmation with a link to edit their registration, and an link to the payment page.
·         The Entrant is added to the event with an unpaid status to the Edit Event Entries, Email/SMS Console, and Scoring
·         The Entrant is hidden from most publicly available entrant lists and is blocked from completing an additional registration. 
If you select the option to “Hide Registrations That Have Not Paid,” as an additional option on the Payment Options tab of the Edit Event Information console, there are several key differences to the entrants experience and the options to manage the event. 

·         The entrant will register as before, and be told that their registration is not complete until they submit payment. 
·         They will not receive an email confirmation regarding their registration until they have completed their payment. 
·         The entrant will not appear on any public registrant list until payment is submitted.
·         The entrant will not be added to Edit Event Entries, Email/SMS Console, Accounting Reports or Scoring until they have either a) completed the payment process or b) the organizer decides view the unpaid entries from the Edit Event Entries, Email or SMS console.

So as the organizer, you can mark them as paid if paying you directly, and you will have the option to email or text the entrant and “remind” them to submit payment. 

Also, the entrant will be able to complete multiple registrations, and naturally only paid entrants will be included on your accounting reports.  Please feel free to contact us with questions or comments.  

Friday, July 20, 2018

Automatic Divisions for O'pen BIC.

I am pleased to announce that we've added the O'pen BIC to the Apply Automatic Divisions console.  In order to use the tool, make sure you have included BIC in the name of the fleet - preferably as Open BIC.  The tool will automatically place the entrants into the U13 or Open divisions so you can score the O'pen BIC fleet as a group one time and have both the overall results and the results for U13 and Open divisions. 

Thursday, July 5, 2018

Entrant Check-In System

Entrant Check-in BadgeEntrant QR Check-In System -- Every junior event now includes an automated QR entrant check-in system.  This system generates a unique QR code for each registrant which can be printed on standard card stock and either laminated or enclosed in zip lock badge holder. 
For each event you have the option to attach the tag to the entrant, their boat, and or their dolly.  The tags can be attached either by zip tie or lanyard to the entrants life jacket of PFD, or by zip tie to Boat or dolly if desired.  


Once attached, the tags are scanned by a smart phone or tablet using a free QR Check-in App from the iTunes or Google Play store.  The entrant is checked when the check into the event, and then when they leave or return to the dock each day

As they are scanned the entrant's status will change from "Checked In" to  "On The Water" to "Off The Water" .  And there is a built in buffer to keep and entrant from being scanned twice and accidentally changing their status. 
The status of each entrant is displayed on a mobile friendly applet, that displays the status alon with with a record of each event and a quick reference to home and emergency contact telephone numbers.

Monday, April 10, 2017

Social Media Integration for Scoring

As you may know, we have included social media integration for your events and your event site for several years.  In addition, this year, we have added social media to the results for your event.  

Now as you score each race, you can post the news that the results have been posted to the Regatta Network Facebook and Twitter feeds, or to your club's Facebook or Twitter account.  

(Sample Twitter Post)

(Sample Facebook Post)

To post to your club or event's Facebook or Twitter account, simply add the credentials for your account, and a notification of the results will be posted with a link back to the full results.  

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

Duplicate Events and a new Event Delete Tool

Several users have reported accidentally creating duplicate events.  This is generally created by incorrectly using the browser's back button during the initial step of Create a New Event. 

If you create an event, and then hit the back button, it will re-start the event creation process. Although most browser give a warning that the document has expired and ask you to confirm that you want to repeat the action that was preformed earlier.

As a simple fix, you can now delete a duplicate event from the event console.  Simply click on the trash icon at the top of the page

And follow the instructions to confirm the event delete action. 

This will support a soft delete of the event, so if you accidentally delete the wrong event, we should be able to recover it for you.  Note that this option is only available with club level "super-user" admin account credentials. 

Friday, August 5, 2016

My.RegattaNetwork - New Tool for Entrants in Regatta Network Events

You may have noticed advertisements for on our home page, event sites, calendar pages, and elsewhere.

My.RegattaNetwork is a new event management system designed specifically for entrants. This system brings together all the tools to manage all of your registrations into one convenient, secure location. It includes:
  • Current Registrations - A complete list of your current events with:
    • Payment status
    • Links for payment or receipt
    • Links to upload documents
    • Links to your event site
  • Calendar -
    • A listing of future events near you
    • Streamlined registration process that pre-populates your form with information from your My.RegattaNetwork account.
  • Past Events -- A complete record of your events with
    • Links to the event web site
    • Links to the results for the event
  • Crewbook
    • Listing of any crew that have registered with you
    • Integrated email console to send them reminders
  • File Manager - Keep track of and easily link to your registrations:
    • Rating Certificates
    • Medical Forms
    • Waivers
    • Insurance forms         

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

New Tool for Crew Registration

For events with flexible crew sizes -- Off Shore, Handicap Events, Distance Races, etc, that still want to capture crew information, we have introduced a new tool to simplify the capture of this information. By enabling the Crew Size question, the system will automatically add the appropriate number of crew applications to each registration. You still have the option to minimize the crew application to capture just first and last name.
Or, if you enable the full crew application you will capture name, address, phone, email, etc. with the option for the entrant to email their crew to complete the forms.
Note: Using the Crew Size option will not show the entrants missing crew as "pending," so for one design or junior events with fixed crew sizes it is still recommended that the crew size be set with the registration fee for the class.

Monday, August 24, 2015

New Event Site and Notice Board Options

Today we are rolling out two new event options.  Several clubs have a dedicated website or their club website for their events rather than use the automatic event site generated when you create an event in Regatta Network.  You can now add the URL for an event site (other than the Regatta Network site) during event creation or through the Edit Event Information console.  Simply enter the URL for the event site in the field labeled  "Event Site Link," and be sure the include the entire web address including the http://www. for your site.  (Tip:  If you copy the URL from a browser address bar, most browsers will automatically add these to your link.)

Also, we're now providing the option to select either the expanded online notice board or the standard notice board during event set up from the first tab of event creation or the Edit Event Information console.  The expanded notice board gives you a separate section for Documents, Notices, Hearing Schedule, Hearing Decisions, Protest Time Limits, and an email Scoring Inquiry form and an optional section for On-the-Water Penalties.

Any document uploaded to your event is automatically added to the documents page. Notices, Hearing Schedule and Decisions, and Protest Time limits are managed through the existing notice board console.  And the scoring inquiry generates an email inquiry to the email addresses listed in the scorer and PRO fields of the Edit Event Information console.

Monday, April 20, 2015

New Club and Event Level Users

As experienced users of Regatta Network know, in the past we had 3 basic users - the Club Admin or "super user" with access to all aspects of all events within their club, and Event Admin and Event Scorer users with access limited to specific events and functions.

Today we're rolling our an expanded User functionality for both Club and Event users.  As the Club Admin, you can now assign the following additional club level users for your club:
  • Admin, 
  • Principal Race Officer (PRO) 
  • Scorer,
  • Protest Committee/Jury Secretary
These club level users will have access to all events for your club, but will only have access to those specific areas necessary to complete their tasks.

Also, we're introducing two new levels of event users
  • Event Level Admin, 
  • Event Level PRO (New!
  • Event Scorer
  • Event Level Protest Committee/Jury Secretary (New!)
These users will have access only to the event or events assigned to them, and again, only access to the areas necessary to their specific tasks.

Setting up these users is easy.  Simply add their name and email to either the Club Information page from the Club Management Menu on the screen left menu, or from the first tab of the Edit Event Information console. 

When you save your changes an message will be sent to the email address provided with a notification that they have been assigned a specific for your club or event.  If it is the first time they've been assigned as a user, the email will include instructions on how to log in with their email and an assigned password.

If they've been assigned as a user on another event for you club or another club, they will receive an email notifying them that they have been granted access to a new event.

For more information, please watch the video here.

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Regatta Network Calendar State Search

To make searches for your entrants easier, we've added a state search to the calendar on  Simply click in the box labeled "Select State", and click one or more states to see just the events near your home.

Click here to give it a try now.

Friday, April 25, 2014

Introducing free 3D Regatta Replays from RaceQs.

Regatta Network is proud to introduce raceQs, a free phone app that creates 3D regatta replays. 
The sailing app from raceQs is a free phone app that turns a smart phone into a GPS tracker.  The app records detailed information about your race and automatically creates a 3D Regatta Replay animation. replays are a great way to improve sailing performance or simply to enjoy the race again. The setup process is really simple, for both you and your sailors. All your sailors will need is a smart phone, and the FREE raceQs app for iPhone and Android.
After running raceQs' app during the race, sailors can watch a 3D replay of  the entire fleet, online.  The replays are based in Google Earth, so permanent marks, city front, and landmarks are all visible alongside the animated sailboat fleet.  Many clubs have had great fun playing the replay on a large TV at the awards party, adding a whole new dimension to the tactical discussions and post-race protest negotiations. 
For more information visit

Scrolling Results for an individual race.

Several clubs have requested a scrolling version of the single race scores for all fleets in their series.  This allows the results from a single race to be displayed on screens or tv's around the club.  To accommodate this request we've added a link to the custom links section of the event console. 

By default the link is set to race 1, so to display the detail of another race simply edit the number following the "&race_num=" at the end of the web address in the URL toolbar.  The scroll speed is set to 1, if you would like the page to scroll at a faster pace, simply change the value following "&scrolling=" to a larger number.  There is an example of this page HERE

Naturally, the Scrolling results page is still available that will show the complete results for the series or regatta.  

Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Deleting Events

One of the most asked questions is "How do I delete an event?"  The short answer is, "You Can't"  For the simple reason that if someone accidentally deleted a live or scored event, it would create havoc in the registration and/or results database.

The easy work around is to change the Event Title to "Delete Me" and shoot us a quick note, and we will be happy to delete it for you. 

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Formatting Printed Reports

Several clubs have asked about changing the formatting of the printed reports generated by Regatta Network.  When these reports are generated as web pages the font size is dynamic and usually adjusted by the setting on each user's browser.  But when printing the report from a browser, the print function will often revert to the stated size of the font as defined in the css or html for the page, which appears to be about 10pt on the printed page.

However there are several options to enlarging the printed version of the page.
  1. Using print preview in your browser, minimize the borders on the page, and print a test page or two. 
  2. Not big enough?   Try changing the page layout from letter to landscape.  At the same time you may need to adjust the scaling on the page to maximize the font size.  Again, print a test page or two.  
  3. Still not big enough?  All reports in Regatta Network are created as an HTML table, as such you can highlight the page with your mouse, and paste it into MS Excel.  Then you can adjust the font size, column width, page breaks, etc. without wasting paper. 
Remember, each browser and printer combination is a bit different, so you may want to experiment with different browsers to see if one combination works best for your event.  Also, it's important to use the print preview function of your browser or Excel, and to save paper. 

Monday, June 10, 2013

Who is Crew?

One of the most frequent questions we get from organizers is "How can I see the information from an in line crew registration."  As you may know, the crew registration follows the skipper/helm's primary registration, on subsequent pages. 

We have added a new feature to link directly to the crew registration from the Edit Event Entries pages.  Simply select the crew option from the show hide columns menu, and click on the crew members name.  No more paging through the registration pages to see the crew information. 

Expanded Console for Storefront Customers

We have recently completed a major enhancement to the customer console for Event Stores.  You can now select whether to view just the store customer, just the event entrants that made purchases through the store, or both.

We have also added the ability for the organizer to select the columns they wish to view, sort by any column or columns, and search for a specific record based on the customer or entrants name.  See video tour below.

Thursday, January 24, 2013

Add Social Network Links to Your Event Site

We've added the option to link your event site directly to the Facebook and Twitter page for your event.  Simply add the links to the appropriate fields on Edit Event Information, and the media tiles will be added to the navigation bar on your event site. 

See example of these tiles in action here

Monday, November 5, 2012

New! - List Multiple Skippers/Co-Owners

At the request of several organizers and classes, event organizers now have the option to allow the listing of Multiple Skippers or Co-Owners on you event.  Simply check the box labeled "Allow Multiple Skipper/Owner Name(s)" to enable this feature.  

It will add a text box for the additional skippers to the registration form as shown below.  Multiple names can be separated by a comma, up to 160 characters.  Note that it will NOT add any additional email or other contact information for the entry, and will only list the name (or names) entered on the entrant lists and results pages.  

Thursday, March 29, 2012

New Discounts for Membership Module Users

For sometime now, Clubs and Associations who have taken advantage of the Regatta Networks Membership Module have been able to host events on Regatta Networks that allow only current and verified members. Due to recent requests, we've added a new type of discount within the fee system that can be applied to only verified members, while allowing non-members to still register for the event. This is a great way to both encourage non-members to join your membership as well as reward your current members via discounted registration fees.
To activate this discount fee type, you must first setup your event to validate your association as well as allow non-members to register (Located in "Edit Event Information" under the 'Form Questions' tab) :
Now that you've enable Class Association verification with Non-Member allowance, you'll have access to your discount in the fee editor:

After the fee is added, registrants will be notified on the registration form that the discount applies to members:

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

What's This? Your Event's QR code!

Some of you may have noticed that we've added an event specific QR Code to all events. This code is a graphic bar code to take your potential registrants or registrants directly to an event page designed specifically for smart phones.

This page will give entrants fast access to your event's status (from the online notice board), the registration form, the current entrant list, results, regatta documents, etc. The event status is updated from the Online Notice Board so entrants can know instantly if you event is on schedule, postponed or abandoned by simply checking their phone.

Use the QR code image in your promotional materials - emails, posters, flyers and around the club house to let entrants connect quickly with your event. The QR code image can be downloaded from the Regatta Network event console in a variety of sizes to fit your application.

As always please feel free to contact us for a demonstration or with questions, comments or suggestions.